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Secure Voting

Random-Sample Elections

Random-Sample Elections

work by randomly selecting voters and auditing tallies in a novel way. It allows anyone to verify online that neither the selection nor outcome can have been manipulated by anyone including governments. Voters are protected but are unable to sell votes. Voters may also be better motivated and informed since each vote carries more weight and each voter can meaningfully investigate and study the single issue that voter is asked to help decide.

CISA members that work on this project include Alan T. Sherman and Christopher D. Nguyen.



Scantegrity is a family of security enhancements for optical scan voting systems, providing such systems with end-to-end (E2E) verifiability of election results. Each version of the system uses privacy-preserving confirmation codes to allow a voter to prove to themselves that their ballot is included unmodified in the final tally. As the system relies on cryptographic techniques, the ability to validate an election outcome is both software independent as well as independent of faults in the physical chain-of-custody of the paper ballots. The system was developed by a team of researchers including cryptographers David Chaum and Ron Rivest.

Scantegrity II prints the confirmation codes in invisible ink to improve usability and dispute resolution. Two versions of the system are currently under research and development: Scantegrity III and Remotegrity. Scantegrity III further improves usability through the addition of a receipt printer. Remotegrity is an Internet version of the Scantegrity system.

CISA members that have worked on this project include Alan T. Sherman, Richard T. Carback III, Russell A. Fink, and John Conway.

This description is a reorganization of the information presented on the Scantegrity website.


Punchscan is the predecessor of Scantegrity system. It is the first vote capture system to offer fully end-to-end (E2E) verifiability of election results. Punchscan moves beyond ordinary paper audit trails offering a far more robust and available way for voters to become involved in the election oversight process. The system was invented by cryptographer David Chaum.

CISA members that worked on this project include Alan T. Sherman and Richard T. Carback III.

This description was taken from the Scantegrity website.